Monday, September 29, 2014

Gas sensor prototype explained

The "We know RFDuino" contest has not ended yet but its end is sufficiently close so that I can explain our prototype application. Our entry is a Bluetooth Low Energy-connected gas sensor and it is presented in the video below. Make sure that you watch it, you help us win the competition.

The prototype demonstrates a unique capability of Bluetooth Low Energy device advertisement messages: you can embed user data into these broadcasts. These come handy if you just want to send out some measurement data to whoever cares to listen without creating a session between the BLE client and server. This broadcast-type data transfer may support unlimited number of clients with very low energy consumption on the sensor side.

Click here to download the Android client application project.

Click here to download the RFDuino source code.

The prototype works like the following. The microcontroller presented in the video measures the Lower Explosion Limit and sends this value to the RFDuino microcontroller over a super-simpe serial protocol. A message of this protocol looks like this:

0xA5 <seq_no> <LEL%>

where seq_no is an increasing value and LEL% is the measured Lower Explosion Limit value. The microcontroller code is not shared here but you can get the idea. The RFDuino code receives the LEL% value over the serial port it creates on GPIO pins 3 and 4, creates a custom data structure for BLE advertisements consisting of the site ID and the LEL% value then starts advertising. This is performed cyclically so the LEL% value is updated in the sensor's BLE advertisement every second.

Now let's see what happens on the Android side. This is a non-trivial application with multiple activities but the Real Thing (TM) happens in the MapScreenActivity, in the onLeScan method. This method is called every time the Android device's BLE stack discovers a device. In this case we check whether the device's name is "g" (this is how we identify our sensor) and we retrieve the LEL% data from the advertisement packet.  We also handle the Received Signal Strenght Indicator (rssi) value for proximity indication. Bluetooth device discovery is restarted in every 2 seconds so that we can retrieve the latest LEL% value. The rest is just Plain Old Android Programming.

The identification of the sensor and the encoding of the sensor data is obviously very naive but this is not really the point. You can make it as complex as you like, e.g. you can protect the sensor data with a hash and place that hash also into the advertisement so that the receiver can make sure that it gets data from an authorized sensor and not a fake one. The important thing is that the entire framework is sufficiently flexible so that relatively complex functionality can be implemented and RFDuino really simplifies sensor programming a lot.

If you enjoyed the example application, make sure you watch the video (many times if possible :-)) and if you happen to be in London on 2014 November 19, you might as well come to the Londroid meetup where I present this and another BLE project (a connection-oriented one, called MotorBoat).

No comments: